Norway Pine (Red Pine)
Norway pine also called red pine is a species of medium-sized, evergreen coniferous trees found in North America. Growing in pure, hardwood, or mixed-conifer stands, the Norway pine commonly occurs with Virginia pine, Table Mountain pine, pitch pine, and eastern white pine. It has a conical crown that becomes rounded dome at maturity.
|Scientific Name||Pinus resinosa|
|Other Names||Northern pine, Pin rouge (French)|
|Size||Height: 66-115 ft (20-35 m); can reach 143 ft (43.7 m)
Trunk Diameter: 3 ft 3 in (1 m)
|Identification||Leaves (Needles): Dark yellow-green, two needles in each fascicle, snap when bent, 12-18 cm long
Cones: Symmetrical ovoid, purple when young, ripen to nut-blue, 4-6 cm long, 2.5 broad
Bark: Thick, grayish-brown base; thin, bright-orange, flaky upper crown in young trees; become plated with age
|Distribution/Range||From eastern North America and Newfoundland west to Minnesota, Manitoba; also in the Appalachian Mountains, West Virginia, northern New Jersey, central Illinois|
|Growth Rate||Slow to medium; 1-1.5 ft per year|
|Lifespan||Long-lived tree, can survive up to 500 years|
|Growing Conditions||Winter Conditions: Cold winters with average temperatures ranging between -18° and -4° C
Summer Conditions: Cool to warm; average temperatures range from 16-20° C
Rain: 510-1,010 mm per year
Sunlight: Full sun
Soil Requirements: Sandy loam, moist, well-drained, acidic; sometimes grow in rocky and dry soil
|Diseases and Pests||Shoestring root rot, Scleroderris canker, Fomes root rot; insects like pine shoot beetle, jack pine budworm, white pine weevil, European pine shoot moth, and pine root-collar weevil cause damage|
|Flowering/Fruiting||Flowers appear during April-June; pollination takes place during May-June, fertilization occurs in mid-July the following year|
|Seed Production||Starts at 15-25 years of age, best produced from 50-150 years|
|Seedling Development||Seedlings emerge in moderate conditions, with the temperature ranging from 21°-30° C and rainfall greater than 100 mm during the growing season|
|Wildlife Value||Provide habitat and nesting sites for pine warbler, osprey, bald eagle, and great blue heron; white-tailed deer and snowshoe hares browse the shoots and seedlings; squirrels, meadow voles, and white-footed mice consume the seeds|
|Varieties/Cultivars||‘Don Smith,’ ‘Morel,’ ‘Globosa,’ ‘Fastigiata,’ ‘Aurea,’ ‘Baxter,’ etc.|
|Uses||For wood production including poles, piling, cabin logs, lumber, posts, pulpwood, mine timbers, railway ties, box boards, and fuel; as a bonsai, ornamental, and Christmas tree; for sandblow control, windbreaks, and snowbreaks|
|IUCN Conservation Status||Least Concern|
- Since Norway pine is a self-pruning tree, dead branches are rarely visible on it.
- In 1953, red pine was recognized as the state tree of Minnesota.
Published on December 10th 2016 by admin under Pine.
Article was last reviewed on 5th December 2022.
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