The Nordmann fir, named after the Finnish zoologist Alexander von Nordmann, is a large coniferous tree found in certain Caucasian countries. Scientists have observed two distinct subspecies of the tree – the Caucasian fir and the Turkish fir, with their range of distribution culminating in Northern Turkey at about 36°E longitude.
|Scientific Name||Abies nordmanniana|
|Other Names||Caucasian Fir, Kazazdagi Fir|
|Size||40-60 ft (12.1-18.2 m); may grow to more than 250 ft (76.2 m)|
|Identification||Leaves (Needles): Flattened, dark green and shinyon the top and bluish white on the undersides; 0.71-1.38 in (1.8-3.5 cm) long and 0.08 in (2 mm) wide; notched or blunted at the end
Fruits (Cones): Upright; 5-6 in (12.7-15.2 cm) long and 2 in (5 cm) wide; notched scales and oblong
Bark: Smooth and thin, resin blisters present, eventually breaks into small plates, barks in older trees become wrinkled
|Distribution||Georgia, Turkey, North Armenia, Russian Caucasus Mountains, Northwest Azerbaijan|
|Lifespan||More than 50 years|
|Growing Conditions||Winter Conditions: Can withstand temperatures as low as -30°F (4.4°C)
Summer Conditions: Prefers humid places
Light Conditions: Full sun
Rain: Over 40 in (1000 m)
Soil Requirements: Moist, well drained, clayey, loamy, and acidic
|Diseases/Pests/Problems||Bagworms, woody adelgids, scales, spider mites, and twig aphids|
|Seed Production||Each cone has scales with seeds; these scales disintegrate at maturity to release the seeds|
|Seedling Development||Easy to germinate|
|Wildlife Value||Provides food and habitat for many bird and animal species|
|Uses||As Christmas trees; ornamental trees in gardens and parks, wood is used to make paper|
|IUCN Conservation Status||Least Concern|
Comparison of Nordmann, Noble & Fraser Firs
Nordmann Fir vs. Noble Fir
Foliage of the noble fir is of light blue-green color while the Nordmann fir has dark green foliage.
Nordmann Fir vs. Fraser Fir
Fraser fir has a scent while the Nordmann fir is without any.
- The Golden Spreader cultivar variant has been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.
- Nordmann Fir and Norway Spruce are two of the most popular choices as Christmas trees in Europe.
Published on September 8th 2016 by Sudipto Chakrabarti under Fir.
Article was last reviewed on 9th May 2023.
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