The Nordmann fir, named after the Finnish zoologist Alexander von Nordmann, is a large coniferous tree found in certain Caucasian countries. Scientists have observed two distinct subspecies of the tree – the Caucasian fir and the Turkish fir, with their range of distribution culminating in Northern Turkey at about 36°E longitude.
|Scientific Name||Abies nordmanniana|
|Other Names||Caucasian Fir, Kazazdagi Fir|
|Size||40-60 ft (12.1-18.2 m); may grow to more than 250 ft (76.2 m)|
|Identification||Leaves (Needles): Flattened, dark green and shiny on the top and bluish white on the undersides; 0.71-1.38 in (1.8-3.5 cm) long and 0.08 in (2 mm) wide; notched or blunted at the end
Fruits (Cones): Upright; 5-6 in (12.7-15.2 cm) long and 2 in (5 cm) wide; notched scales and oblong
Bark: Smooth and thin, resin blisters present, eventually breaks into small plates, barks in older trees become wrinkled
|Distribution||Georgia, Turkey, North Armenia, Russian Caucasus Mountains, Northwest Azerbaijan|
|Lifespan||More than 50 years|
|Growing Conditions||Winter Conditions: Can withstand temperatures as low as -30°F (4.4°C)
Summer Conditions: Prefers humid places
Light Conditions: Full sun
Rain: Over 40 in (1000 m)
Soil Requirements: Moist, well drained, clayey, loamy, and acidic
|Diseases/Pests/Problems||Bagworms, woody adelgids, scales, spider mites, and twig aphids|
|Seed Production||Each cone has scales with seeds; these scales disintegrate at maturity to release the seeds|
|Seedling Development||Easy to germinate|
|Wildlife Value||Provides food and habitat for many bird and animal species|
|Uses||As Christmas trees; ornamental trees in gardens and parks, wood is used to make paper|
|IUCN Conservation Status||Least Concern|
Comparison of Nordmann, Noble & Fraser Firs
Nordmann Fir vs. Noble Fir
Foliage of the noble fir is of light blue-green color while the Nordmann fir has dark green foliage.
Nordmann Fir vs. Fraser Fir
Fraser fir has a scent while the Nordmann fir is without any.
- The Golden Spreader cultivar variant has been awarded the Royal Horticultural Society’s Award of Garden Merit.
- Nordmann Fir and Norway Spruce are two of the most popular choices as Christmas trees in Europe.